A multiple sclerosis is a form of autoimmune disease that often causes permanent disruption at various levels of the nervous system. At present, multiple sclerosis cannot be prevented, or fully cured.
While the normal immune system produces antibodies that fight antigens (foreign infectious agents), in the case of multiple sclerosis, the body's immune system does not function and turns against healthy body cells.
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However, existing treatments are used to slow the progression of the disease, extend the period of remission, relieve symptomatic flare-ups and prevent the development of further complications. The main factor responsible for developing multiple sclerosis is improper immune system activity.
A disrupted immune system can no longer distinguish between healthy, normal cells and antigens, triggering repeated attacks on the body's nervous system and destroying the protective cover of nerve cells called myelin.
Myelin surrounds the axon, facilitating the transmission of information between nerve cells. When the myelin cover is destroyed, the signal transmitted at the level of the nervous system is disrupted, causing a series of neurological symptoms in patients faced with this type of disease.
Although in the past medical scientists believed that multiple sclerosis only involved the destruction of myelin, a recent medical investigation revealed the fact that axons were also attacked by a dysfunctional immune system.